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Dr. Ulrike Grohmann
Profesor of Dentofacila Orthopaedeics University of Göttingen, Germany
Aurtora del Libro Atlas de Apartatologia en Ortopediua Maxilar 2 edicion
Practica Privada. Alemania

53.) TEMAS: Aparatologia Maxilar y Funcional en Ortopedia Maxilar y Concerptos modernos en Tratamienbros Clases II


Removable appliances can be used to treat a large number of mild and moderate malocclusions, especially in the growing patient. Removable appliances are most useful for the first of two phases of treatment, and contemporary comprehensive treatment is dominated by fixed, non removable appliances. The advantages of the removable orthodontic appliances are: they can be removed on socially sensitive occasions, and they are fabricated in the laboratory These advantages for both the patient and the orthodontist have ensured a continuing interest in the removable appliances.

In detail they are useful for the elimination of displacements, the reduction of overbite and the provision of additional anchorage. They can provide a ready adjunct to other forms of treatment, especially treatment with fixed appliances where they are almost routinely used as removable retainers when active tooth movement is completed. This lectures will give an overview to some of these current possibilities of the removable appliances.


A major part of the removable orthodontic appliances are the functional appliances for guidance of the growth.
A functional appliance by definition is one that changes the posture of the mandible, holding it open or open and forward. Pressures created by stretch of the muscles and soft tissues are transmitted to the dental and skeletal structures, moving teeth and modifying growth in the mixed dentition. The functional appliances are understood best when viewed as falling into one of three broad categories. These are passive tooth-borne appliances, active tooth-borne appliances and tissue-borne appliances.

This lecture will give an overview of the historical development, the classification of the functional appliances and the current use. The focus of this lecture is the design and use of many types of the functional appliances.

3.-MODERN CONCEPTS of Class II Treatment

In the absence of favourable growth, treating a Class II relationship in adolescents is difficult and compromises may have to be accepted in order to correct the malocclusion . Beyond the adolescent growth spurt, even though facial growth continues, too little remains to correct skeletal problems.

The treatment options therefore are either displacement of the teeth relative to their supporting bone, to compensate for the underlying jaw discrepancy, or surgical repositioning of the jaws.

The treatment in the permanent dentition is only possible with fixed appliances. There are different auxillaries to correct the Class II malocclusion. All of them are based on the two principles either the telescopic or the spring effect.

This objectives of this lecture will give an overview to some of these current possibilities in the fixed appliance therapy

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